Siegmund Heinrich Foulkes, FRCPsych (1898-1976), was a psychoanalyst, a pioneer of group analytic psychotherapy and founder of the Group-Analytic Society (London). Elizabeth Therese Fanny Foulkes (née Marx) was his third wife and also a relative. She was a co-founder of the Group-Analytic Society (London) and deeply involved in group analytic psychotherapy. They were both German Jews who emigrated to England in the 1930s.
A biographical outline follows:
1898 Sigmund Fuchs (later Foulkes) (SHF) born in Karlsruhe, Germany.
1917-1919 Telephonist and telegraphist in German army in France.
1918 Elizabeth Marx (later Foulkes) (ETF) born. Family live Beethovenstrasse 1, Karlsruhe.
1919-1920 SHF pre-clinical studies in Heidelberg.
1920-1921 SHF clinical studies in Munich.
1921-1923 Continues medical studies in Frankfurt.
1923 SHF MD Frankfurt.
SHF marries (1) Erna Stavenhagen.
ETF's sister Gertrud born.
1923-1924 SHF training at the Charité II Hospital in Berlin.
1924 SHF works for H. Fuchs Söhne (family timber firm), Karlsruhe.
SHF's first child, Tom born.
1925-1926 SHF assistant at Medical University and Clinic in Frankfurt under Strassburger and Adler.
1926-1928 SHF works at Neurological Institute in Frankfurt under Goldstein.
SHF's second child, Lisa, is born.
1928 Psychoanalytic training, Vienna with analyst Helene Deutsch.
Psychiatric training at University Clinic with Wagner-Jauregg and Pötzl; works with Hartmann, Hoff and Stengl.
1930-1933 Private practice as psychiatrist and psychoanalyst in Frankfurt.
1930-1933 SHF joins Frankfurt Psychoanalytic Institute.
SHF becomes first director of the Psychoanalytic Clinic, analyses and lectures.
1931 SHF's third child, Vera, is born.
1932 Psychoanalytical Congress, Wiesbaden.
1933 SHF and family go to Switzerland and France then move to England.
SHF becomes associate of British Psycho-Analytical Society
SHF member of staff at the London Clinic of Psychoanalysis.
SHF meets Melanie Klein and Dorothy Barnett.
1933 SHF studies at Westminster Hospital for British medical qualification.
1934 ETF leaves Germany; attends school in Merano, Italy.
1935 ETF goes to school in Switzerland.
1936 ETF emigrates to England. Lives initially in Northwood with her paternal uncle and attends courses in stenography and "commercial correspondence."
Undertakes an apprenticeship with Elkin Matthews, bookseller.
1936 SHF British medical qualification examinations: LRCP LRCS Edinburgh and LRFPS Glasgow.
SHF attends Psychoanalytic Congress in Marienbad and visits Freud.
Private practice as a psychoanalyst in London.
1937 SHF becomes full member of British Psycho-analytical Society and begins teaching at the Institute.
SHF and Erna divorce.
1938 SHF joins Medical Section of British Psychological Society.
SHF marries (2) Kilmeny Graham.
SHF becomes British subject and changes name to Foulkes.
ETF's parents and sister emigrate to France. In December ETF's father, Jakob Marx, dies.
1940-1942 SHF private practice in Exeter and work at Exeter Child Guidance Clinic.
1942 SHF joins Royal Army Medical Corps, is appointed Major (Specialist in Psychiatry) and posted to Northfield Military Hospital.
SHF meets James Anthony, Patrick de Maré and Martin James.
ETF becomes British subject and joins Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) as a cook.
ETF's mother Henriette (Henni) and sister Gertrud Marx are arrested by the French police and deported to Auschwitz where they both die.
1945 ETF joins the Army Education Corps, Colchester.
1946 SHF released from Army service, returns to private practice in London.
SHF becomes a member of teaching staff and Training Analyst at the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.
1946-1950 SHF becomes associate Chief Assistant, Department of Psychological Medicine, and St. Bartholomew's Hospital.
SHF meets regularly with a group of colleagues interested in group psychotherapy (as the "Study" or "Congress" Group).
1947-1950 ETF leaves army; undertakes literacy agency work.
ETF and SHF meet again.
1948 International Congress on Mental Health, London.
SHF visits New York, Boston, Washington and Baltimore.
SHF's introduction to Group-analytic Psychotherapy.
1948-1949 Unsuccessful attempts to establish a centre for group psychotherapy under the NHS; unsuccessful application to the Maudsley Hospital to run a group psychotherapy unit.
1949 SHF speaks at 6th Annual Conference of American Group Therapy Association, New York.
1950 The Study Group adopts a more planned approach for its activities and takes the name of Group-Analytic (Research) Centre.
ETF joins a group; begins to work as SHF's secretary.
1950-1963 SHF consultant physician, Bethlem Royal and Maudsley Hospitals.
1951 SHF moves to consulting rooms at 22 Upper Wimpole Street where the Group-Analytic Practice and Society have their origins.
SHF on Executive Committee of International Council of Group Psychotherapy.
1951-1952 SHF conducts weekly training seminars in group-analysis and regular Monday meetings.
1952 Inaugural meeting of Group-Analytic Society (GAS).
GAS begins to hold study courses, advanced seminars and workshops.
1952-1970 SHF President of GAS.
ETF Honorary Secretary of GAS.
1953-1956 SHF member of the Council of the British Psycho-Analytical Society.
1954 SHF becomes a member of the International Council of Group Psychotherapy.
First Congress of International Council of Group Psychotherapy, Toronto.
1956 SHF member of the Committee, Royal Medical Psychological Association (Psychotherapy and Social Psychiatry Section).
1957 SHF publishes Group Psychotherapy: the Psycho-analytic Approach with E. James Anthony.
Second International Congress of Group Psychotherapy, Zurich, SHF is vice-president of the congress and chairman of section on Analytic Group Psychotherapy.
1958 Robin Skynner joins Foulkes in practice.
SHF visits New York and addresses New York Academy of Medicine.
1958 SHF is visiting professor at University of North Carolina Medical School.
Fourth International Congress of Psychotherapy, Barcelona.
1959 Death of Kilmeny Foulkes.
What later becomes known as the Group-Analytic Practice is founded.
1960 SHF and ETF marry.
1960 Jim Home, Pat de Maré, Ronald Casson, Malcolm Pines and Robin Skynner move to 66 Montagu Mansions and adopt name Group-Analytic Practice (GAP).
1961-1962 SHF is chairman of the medical section, British Psychological Society.
1963 SHF is physician to Joint Hospitals for one year to do research into networks of patients.
Third International Congress of Group Psychotherapy, Milan.
SHF conducts informal workshop at Pallanza following Congress.
1964 SHF appointed Physician Emeritus to Joint Hospitals.
SHF publishes Therapeutic Group Analysis.
General Course in Group Work established.
1964-1965 SHF is chairman Psychotherapy and Social Psychiatry Section Royal Medico-Psychological Association.
1965 SHF is consultant for UNESCO in Israel instructing and supervising school counsellors in group methods.
1966 GAP moves to 88 Montagu Mansions.
1967 Group Analysis: International Panel and Correspondence (GAIPAC) is founded; SHF is editor 1967-1975 and financial sponsor 1967-1970.
Embryo Institute of Group Analysis (IGA) formed.
1968 Fourth International Congress of Group Psychotherapy, Vienna; SHF conducts informal post-congress workshop.
1969 International Council of Group Psychotherapy develops.
SHF publishes Psychiatry in a Changing Society with Gordon Prince.
1970 SHF retires from practice.
1970-1971 GAS gives responsibility for training and qualifications in group analysis to IGA; and the Trust for Group Analysis (TGA), a charitable body, is established to handle the finances of GAS, IGA and GAIPAC.
1971 SHF appointed Foundation Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.
1971-1972 IGA establishes qualifying course in group analysis leading to a recognised professional qualification; SHF teaches on this course until his death.
1973-1983 IGA and GAP at 1 Bickenhall Mansions.
1974 Intensive Course on Group Analysis, Altausee, Austria.
1974-1975 ETF attends Family and Marital Therapy course.
1975 SHF publishes Group-Analytic Psychotherapy: Method and Principles.
1976 SHF dies 8 July while conducting a group.
1976-1980 ETF member of Large Group Project (Dr de Maré).
1976-1988 ETF editor of GAIPAC.
1978-1979 ETF co-therapist with Dr J Lomax-Simpson at the East Grinstead Family Consultation Clinic.
1980 Group therapist at St Bernhard's Hospital, Southall (with Dr R Hinshelwood).
Takes theoretical seminars for a formal course in group analysis for German psychotherapists.
1980s Runs group for elderly patients at Princess Louise Hospital, Kensington.
1980s-1990s Publishes various biographical articles on SHF and historical accounts of GAS and group analysis as well as other articles and reviews.
1982 GAIPAC changes its format and becomes known as Group Analysis: the Journal of Group-Analytic Psychotherapy.
1986 ETF founding member of European Association for Transcultural Group Analysis (EATGA).
1986-1987 Runs staff support group at the Charter Clinic, London.
1988 ETF made honorary member of Associazione di Ricerche.
1990 SHF Selected Papers: psychoanalysis and group analysis published. Compiled by ETF.
1990s ETF works on the diploma in group psychotherapy course at Goldsmith's College, London. Gives lectures and acts as external examiner.
ETF registered member of the UK Council for Psychotherapy.
2004 Death of ETF.
Siegmund Foulkes was born 'Siegmund Heinrich Fuchs.' In Germany, he was often known as 'Heinz,' or later 'Dr Heinz Fuchs.' His second wife, Kilmeny (known as 'Kim') called him 'Michael,' after a character in a novel. For the rest of his life many people knew him as Michael. In 1938, when he became a British citizen, he changed his surname to 'Foulkes.' For consistency he is referred to as 'SHF' throughout the catalogue. Similarly, Elizabeth Foulkes will be referred to as ETF (as she often referred to herself) throughout the catalogue but the reader should bear in mind that she was 'Elizabeth Marx' until she married SHF in 1960.
SHF had three children with his first wife, Erna - Tom (born 1924), Lisa (born 1927), and Vera (born 1931). In 1938 they changed their surname from Fuchs to Foulkes. Tom married Marian Pollock and had one son, Paul Vincent. Lisa married Peter Ward and had two children, Anthony and Helen. Vera married Roberto Mayer and had three children, David, Daniel and Benjamin. Vera and Lisa are referred to by both their maiden and married names in the catalogue according to the name used in the document in question.
ETF's parents were Jakob and Henriette (née Stern) Marx and her sister was Gertrud (known as "Trutsch"). SHF's parents were Gustav and Sarah (known as "Claire," née Durlacher) Fuchs. His siblings were Richard, Senta, Gottfried (later Godfrey Foch) and Walther.
Further details can be found in Section A; ETF's "Reminiscences" (PP/SHF/F/11/1); "S.H. Foulkes & Group Analysis: a historical and personal account" (PP/SHF/F/11/2); "SHF biographical notes and sketches" (PP/SHF/F/11/3 and PP/SHF/F/12/5) and in Malcolm Pines (ed.), The Evolution of Group Analysis.